What are Storage Tanks used for? API 650
- Posted by: arvengtraining
- Category: Storage Tanks
From all types of containers, Aboveground Storage Tanks are the most used. The different types of tanks are used to store a variety of products such as crude oil and its derivatives, butane, propane, LPG, solvents, water, etc.
Continuous production processes (such as refineries) require the storage of products for a later use, transportation or disposal. In such cases, storage is performed according to the physical state of the product:
- Pressure vessels are used to store gases and liquids at high pressure.
- Silos are used to store solids, grains, etc.
- Storage tanks are used to store liquids with low pressure.
Aboveground Storage Tanks (vertical cylindrical flat bottom tanks) permit the storage of large volumetric quantities at low cost, with the only limitation that they can be used at atmospheric pressure or relatively small internal pressures. There are different codes and standards applicable to the design of storage tanks.
API 650 Standard
One of the most widely used design codes is the API 650 Standard, from the American Petroleum Institute. The main objective of this standards is, through the requirements contained in its various sections, to facilitate the purchase and construction of vertical, aboveground, welded fabricated tanks assuring that required safety regulations are met.
The standard API 650 covers the design and calculation of the different elements of the tank. The code is based on the knowledge and experiences of buyers, manufacturers and users of welded storage tanks of various sizes and capacities. It is noteworthy that code requirements are minimal; a more stringent criterion could be adopted for a particular application.
The scope of this standard is limited to tanks in which liquid fluids are stored and designed to withstand atmospheric pressure operation, less than 18 kPa, or internal pressures not exceeding the weight of the roof, with temperatures no higher than 93° C. Internal temperatures could go up to 260 ° C with certain restrictions.
In some cases, mainly due to the nature of the fluid, storage tanks are required to operate with internal pressures higher than 18 kPa, a different set of rules must be followed. In these cases, other codes such as the API 620 Standard must be applied. This code covers the design and construction of vertical, aboveground, large tanks fabricated with carbon steel, working with internal pressures ranging from 18 kPa up to 103kPa, operating temperatures no higher than 93ºC.
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